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自考本科英语二词汇历年真题精讲

来源:湖南师范大学自考本科 时间:2020-11-18

  英语学习没有速成法,只能每天练习,每天进步一点。学好自考英语就要一步一步来,从词汇、语法到句型、作文,把基础打牢,往后学习会比较轻松。词汇英语学习的基础,是每天都需要更新记忆的,今天湖南自考网为大家整理了自考英语二教材内容的词汇精讲,希望对各位自考生有帮助。

  TextA What Is a Decision?词汇精讲

  1.achievement n. 完成,成就

  例句

  An Olympic silver medal is a remarkable achievement for one so young .

  对一个如此年轻的人来说,获得奥运会银牌是个了不起的成就。

  派生词:achieve v. 完成,做到,达到(目的),实现,获得

  例句

  He will never achieve his objectives if he doesn't work hard .

  如果他不努力,将会永远达不到目的。
 

  2.attain v. 达到;获得 (长期努力后而获得)

  同义词:obtain, get

  例句

  She has made up her mind to attain her goal in life.

  她下定决心要达到生活中的目标。

  The apple tree has attained to a great height.

  苹果树已长得很高了。
 

  3.optimal adj 最佳的

  例句

  The sailors are waiting for optimal weather conditions before taking off .

  船员们正在等待出航的最佳天气条件。
 

  4.argue vt./vi. 争辩,争论,辩论

  用法

  (1)作不及物动词时,后边可以接with, about 或over(就…争论),for (赞成)或against (反对)。

  例句

  he is always ready to argue over the smallest issues.

  她总喜欢为极小的问题进行争论。

  He often argues philosophy with James.

  他常和詹姆斯讨论哲学。

  He argued for immediate action .

  他主张立即行动。

  They argued against such a policy.

  他们反对这种政策。

  (2)作及物动词时,表示“说服、用辩论证明”的意思。

  例句

  I argued him out going on such a dangerous journey.

  我说服他不做这样危险的旅行。

  He argued that man was descended from apes.

  他论证人类的祖先是猿。

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  5.scheme n 计划 方案

  例句

  He has got a crazy scheme for getting rich before he is 20 .

  他制定了一个在20岁之前发财的疯狂计划。
 

  6.multiple adj 多样的 复合的

  例句

  What the person does next is the result of the multiple influences to which they have been exposed .

  一个人下一步会做什么是他受到的多种影响的结果。
 

  7.ongoing adj 进行中的,前进的

  例句

  No agreement has yet been reached and the negotiations one still ongoing .

  目前还没有达成任何协议,谈判仍在进行。
 

  8.entity n 存在 实体

  例句

  He regarded the north of the country as a separate cultural entity .

  他把这个国家的北方看成一个单独的文化实体。
 

  9.skilled adj 熟练的,有技能的

  例句

  My mother is very skilled at /in dress-making .

  我母亲非常擅长做衣服。
 

  TextA What Is a Decision?

  短语识记

  1.in a way 在某种程度上;在某些方面; 从某一点上看

  in no way 决不;一点也不;

  in the way of 按照; 就…。 而言

  by way of 取道,经由

  by the way 顺便问一下
 

  2.to make a guess at 猜测

  You might have been able to make a guess at who she was.

  你本来能够猜到她是谁。

  Can you make a guess at the price ?

  你猜得出价钱吗?
 

  3.be seek to 寻求,争取

  Power stations are seeking to reduce their use of oil .

  发电站正在设法减少石油的使用
 

  4.in part 部分地;有些部分;在某种程度上

  This was in part due to financial difficulties.

  部分是由于财政困难。

  The responsibility was in part because of me.

  部分责任在我。
 

  5.point of view 视点,视角

  The book looks at college life from a student's point of view.

  这本书从一个学生的视角来看大学生活。
 

  6.to vary from …to … 从…到…不同,因… 而异

  Salary scales vary from state to state.

  工资级别因州而异。
 

  7.contribute … to 把… 贡献给…

  We'll contribute ourselves to this career after we graduate . 我们毕业后将为此事业作贡献。

  contribute to 导致

  Smoking is the main factor contributing to lung cancer.

  吸烟是导致肺癌的主要因素。
 

  8.be beneficial to 对… 有利

  Jogging is beneficial to our health.

  慢跑有利于我们的健康。

  Reciting passages is beneficial to improving oral English.

  朗读(背诵)短文段落对提高英语口语有利。
 

  TextA What Is a Decision?

  课文精讲

  Para.3

  Choice is the opportunity to select among alternatives. If there is no choice, there is no decision to be made. Decision making is the process of choosing, and many decisions have a broad range of choice. For example, a student may be able to choose among a number of different courses in order to implement the decision to obtain a college degree. For managers,every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like. These constraints exist at all levels of the organization.
 

  1.“选择”三个词的区别:

  alternative adj.两者或多于两者选一个,供选择的,n.替代物

  choice 选自己喜欢的,挑出,选出

  select 选出最好的,筛选、精选
 

  2.由 if 引导的条件状语从句, 主句中的不定式被动态 to be made作定语, 修饰decision
 

  3.range n. 范围 a broad range of choice 一个很广的选择范围

  For managers,every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like.
 

  1.be based on 表示“建立在…基础上;本句中based on 是一个过去分词作定语修饰constraints。

  例:The book is based on a true story. 这本书是以一个真实的故事为依据的。

  He was the first to draw a map that was based on all available knowledge, rather than guess or imagination. 他第一个画出以当时所有的知识为基础的地图,而不是基于猜测和想象。
 

  2.and the like 意思是“等等 (之类的东西)”。

  例:He studied painting, music, English and the like. 他学习了绘画、音乐、英语等等。

  Para.4

  Alternatives are the possible courses of action from which choices can be made. If there are no alternatives, there is no choice and, therefore, no decision. If no alternatives are seen, often it means that a thorough job of examining the problems has not been done. For example,managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion;this is their way of simplifying complex problems. But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives.

  1.from which 引导定语从句,修饰 courses of action 行动方针
 

  2.a thorough job of examining 一个彻底的考察工作

  a thorough job是主语,of examining the problems 修饰job,has not been done是句子的谓语。

  thorough a. 彻底的

  through prep. 通过,穿过

  though conj. 虽然,尽管 ( 同although )

  thought n. 思想

  For example,managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion
 

  3.either /or 意思是“非此即彼;二者择一”。

  例:We fight, or we don't —— it's an either/or decision.

  我们战斗或不战斗-这是二者择一的决定。

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